How do I know what elements my plant has in excess?

An excess of elements can be just as detrimental to plants as a deficiency. This often occurs due to over-fertilization when the recommended dosage and frequency are not followed. Here are the signs of excess for various elements:

Nitrogen (N): Plants become overgrown, with dark green and large leaves. Lower leaves become dark green and curl, and fruit-bearing plants may not produce fruit.

Phosphorus (P): New leaves are thin and chlorotic, while the tips appear pale. Yields are reduced, and lower leaves may curl and develop spots.

Potassium (K): New leaves become thin and exhibit chlorosis. Leaf tips and edges die off, lower leaves twist, and brown spots may appear. Root tips can also die off.

Calcium (Ca): Intervillous chlorosis may occur, as excess calcium can hinder the absorption of iron and manganese.

Magnesium (Mg): Excess magnesium interferes with calcium absorption, leading to symptoms similar to calcium deficiency. Leaves curl, wither, and may die off, resulting in stunted plant growth.

Iron (Fe): An excess of iron can hinder the plant's ability to absorb phosphorus and manganese. Leaves darken and take on a bluish hue, growth is stunted, and young shoots may die off.

Copper (Cu): An excess of copper can cause brown spots on lower leaves, leading to gradual leaf die-off. Plant growth is slowed.

Zinc (Zn): Whitish spots may appear on the undersides of leaves, causing a lumpy leaf surface.

Boron (B): Excess boron can manifest as small brown spots on lower leaves, which gradually increase in size, leading to leaf death.

Manganese (Mn): Symptoms of manganese excess include chlorosis on older leaves and the appearance of spots in various colors.

Molybdenum (Mo): Molybdenum excess can hinder copper absorption, resulting in symptoms similar to copper deficiency, including sluggish plant growth and light spots on leaves.

If you observe signs of excess nutrition, it's advisable to temporarily halt fertilization until the plant returns to normal. Once your plant has recovered, establish a strict fertilization schedule to prevent future excesses.