Avocado Persea americana
P. americana is a bushy evergreen shrub or small tree, with glossy, lance-shaped or elliptic leaves, rarely flowering in cultivation in temperate climates
About this plant
Avocado, Avocado pear, Alligator pear, Butter fruit, Aguacate, Alligator pear, Midshipman's butter, Palta, Vegetable marrow, West Indian avocado
Laurus persea, Persea americana var. angustifolia, Persea americana var. drymifolia, Persea americana var. nubigena, Persea drymifolia, Persea edulis, Persea floccosa, Persea gigantea, Persea gratissima, Persea gratissima var. drimyfolia, Persea gratissima var. macrophylla, Persea gratissima var. oblonga, Persea gratissima var. praecox, Persea gratissima var. vulgaris, Persea leiogyna, Persea nubigena, Persea nubigena var. guatemalensis, Persea paucitriplinervia, Persea persea, Persea steyermarkii
The fruit of Persea americana, also known as avocado, is generally considered to be safe for human consumption.
The fruit, leaves, bark, and seeds of the avocado plant contain a chemical called persin, which in high concentrations can be toxic to animals. However, persin is not harmful to humans when consumed in the small amounts found in avocados.
Ingestion of the leaves, bark or seed in large amount can cause stomach upset, vomiting and diarrhea in humans, it's best to avoid consumption of those parts of the plant.
It's also important to note that the skin and leaves of avocado tree can cause skin irritation and allergic reaction in some people.
Persea americana, also known as avocado, is generally considered to be safe for human consumption but some parts of the plant can be toxic to certain animals. The fruit, leaves, bark, and seeds of the avocado plant contain a chemical called persin, which in high concentrations can be toxic to animals.
Persin can cause serious health problems for some animals, such as horses, cattle, and birds. Ingestion of avocado leaves, bark, or fruit can cause respiratory distress, congestion, fluid accumulation around the heart and lungs, and even death in some cases. Other animals such as dogs and cats, the ingestion of avocado can cause stomach upset and vomiting, but is not likely to be fatal.
Color of leaves
Up to 70 feet
Up to 70 feet
Central America and Mexico
- General Benefits
Avocados are high in monounsaturated fats, which can help lower cholesterol levels and decrease the risk of heart disease;
Avocados are relatively low in calories and are high in fiber, which can help you feel full for longer periods of time. This can help with weight management and weight loss efforts;
Avocados are a good source of vitamins K, E, and B-6, as well as potassium and folate. These nutrients are important for maintaining healthy eyes, skin, hair, and overall well-being;
Avocados contain compounds that have anti-inflammatory effects and may help to reduce the risk of certain chronic diseases.
- Medical Properties
Avocados contain compounds that have anti-inflammatory effects and may help to reduce inflammation throughout the body;
Avocados are rich in antioxidants, particularly lutein and zeaxanthin, which may help protect cells from damage caused by free radicals;
The monounsaturated fats in avocados may help to lower cholesterol levels, reduce inflammation, and improve overall heart health;
The potassium content in avocados can help regulate blood pressure by counterbalancing the effects of sodium in the body;
The fiber and healthy fats in avocados may help to regulate blood sugar levels and improve insulin sensitivity;
Avocado oil has been used in traditional medicine to promote wound healing and reduce the risk of infection;
Avocados are a good source of lutein, a carotenoid that is important for maintaining healthy eyes.
It's important to note that many of these medical properties are still being studied and more research is needed to understand the full extent of the health benefits of avocados. Avocados should not be used as a substitute for traditional medical treatments and it is always a good idea to consult with a doctor or health professional before making changes to your diet or treatment regimen.
- Other Uses
The oil from avocados can be used to make homemade soap. It is used as a primary oil and can be mixed with other oils and ingredients such as essential oils, herbs, or fragrances;
The fruit and leaves of the avocado tree are a good source of potassium and can be used as a natural fertilizer for other plants;
The wood of the avocado tree can be used for a variety of purposes. It is hard, durable and has a beautiful grain, it can be used for furniture, cabinetry, flooring, carving and turning in woodworking;
The avocado tree is an attractive ornamental tree with glossy green leaves, which can be grown as indoor or outdoor plants. They are also very easy to care for and have a low maintenance. They can add a tropical touch to any garden or home.
- Feng Shui
Placing the avocado plant in the east or southeast sector of your home, according to feng shui, can bring abundance and wealth luck. The southeast sector of your home is also associated with wealth and prosperity, so placing the avocado plant there can help to enhance these energies.
- Plant Symbolism
In terms of symbolism, the avocado is often associated with fertility and abundance.
The avocado tree is an evergreen and produces fruit year-round, and in some cultures, it is associated with wealth, abundance and love. The avocado fruit is also rich in fat which is why it's also associated with richness and plenitude.
In general, avocado trees should be watered deeply and infrequently.
A good rule of thumb is to wait until the top inch of soil is dry before watering again. For young trees, you should water them every 7-10 days during the growing season, for mature trees it may be less frequent.
It's important to avoid over-watering, as this can lead to root rot. In addition, it's important to make sure that the soil has good drainage and that the tree is planted in a spot that does not retain standing water.
The best light conditions for avocado tree is bright indirect light.
They can tolerate a little bit of direct sunlight, but they prefer filtered light, they can grow well near a window that gets indirect light.
The avocado tree is a tropical plant, it prefers warm temperatures and they need to be protected from frost.
The ideal temperature range for an avocado tree is between 60-85°F. They can tolerate temperatures as low as 32°F for short period of time, but prolonged exposure to freezing temperatures can damage or kill the tree. If you are growing avocado tree indoor or in a container, it's important to provide a warm, bright location and to protect it from cold drafts.
Pruning an avocado tree can help to promote healthy growth and fruit production. The best time to prune an avocado tree is in the late winter or early spring, before new growth begins. Prune to remove dead, diseased, or damaged wood, and to shape the tree for optimal fruit production. Start by removing any dead, diseased, or damaged wood. Then, prune to shape the tree, focusing on removing any branches that are crossing or rubbing against each other. Avoid removing more than 25% of the tree's canopy at one time.
Every few weeks
The best soil for avocado trees is well-draining, loamy soil with a slightly acid to neutral pH between 6.0 and 7.0. Avocado trees prefer soil that is rich in organic matter, such as compost or well-rotted manure.
It's important to ensure that the soil has good drainage to avoid root rot. You may want to consider amending your soil with coarse sand, perlite or other materials to improve drainage if your soil is heavy clay or tends to retain water.
Avocado trees do not need to be repotted frequently as they are not known for growing very fast.
For young avocado plants, it is suggested to repot them once a year or when the roots have outgrown their container until the tree reaches the size desired or appropriate for the location. For mature avocado plants, repotting is not needed, instead regular checking of the root condition and removing the old soil and adding new soil every 2-3 years is enough.
- Humidity & Misting
Avocado trees prefer humidity levels between 40-60%.
If grown indoors or in a container, it's important to mist the leaves or place the tree on a tray of moist pebbles to increase humidity levels. It's also important to keep the tree away from dry air, heat sources and drafts.
- Suitable locations
Avocado trees can also be grown indoors as houseplants or in containers. They can be grown as a small tree or bonsai.
To grow indoors, choose a dwarf variety or a grafted variety that will stay small. Avocado trees grown indoors will need bright, indirect light and should be kept away from cold drafts. They also need to be fertilized and watered regularly, and misted to increase humidity levels.
Avocado trees can be grown outdoors in subtropical or tropical climates with warm temperatures and adequate rainfall.
They should be planted in well-draining soil in a spot that gets partial to full sun. Avocado trees can reach up to 60 feet tall and 40 feet wide, so they need plenty of room to grow.
8 - 10 USDA
- Life cycle
The avocado tree begins its life cycle as a seed. The seed germinates when it is exposed to proper temperature and moisture conditions, and a root and stem emerge.
After the seed has germinated, the seedling begins to grow. It produces a main stem and two lateral branches which produce the first leaves. The leaves are arranged in a whorled pattern, and the tree continues to grow rapidly.
After about three years of vegetative growth, the avocado tree begins to flower. Avocados are self-fertile, meaning they do not require pollination from other trees. The tree produces small, greenish-yellow flowers that are arranged in panicles.
If the flowers are pollinated, the ovary of the flower develops into a fruit. The fruit of the avocado tree is a large, pebble-skinned drupe. Once the fruit is mature, it can be harvested.
Once the avocado fruit is mature, it can be eaten or the seed can be used to propagate new trees. The seeds can be dispersed by animals, water or wind.
The avocado tree can also regenerate itself by sprouting new seedlings from the roots. This process is called “suckering.” The new seedlings can then be transplanted or left to grow and form new trees.
Late winter - early spring
Seed propagation is the most common and cost-effective method of propagating avocados. To propagate from seed, the avocado should be de-pulped and allowed to dry for a few days. Once the seed is completely dry, it should be planted in a pot filled with a well-draining soil mix and lightly covered with soil. The seed should then be kept moist, warm, and well lit until it sprouts (which usually takes about 4-6 weeks).
Grafting is a slightly more complicated technique which involves attaching a scion (a piece of stem or branch from an existing avocado tree) onto a rootstock (the roots of a different avocado tree). The scion and rootstock should be carefully matched so that they are approximately the same size and age. Grafting is used to propagate avocados with specific characteristics that are desirable.
Cutting is another propagation method which involves taking a cutting (a piece of stem or branch) from an existing avocado tree and rooting it. To do this, the cutting should be taken from a healthy, mature avocado tree and should be about 6-8 inches in length. The cutting should then be allowed to dry for a few days before being planted in a pot filled with a well-draining soil mix and lightly covered with soil. The cutting should then be kept moist, warm, and well lit until it sprouts (which usually takes about 4-6 weeks).
Layering is a propagation method which involves rooting a branch that is still attached to the parent plant. To do this, a branch should be bent down and covered with a layer of soil. The branch should then be kept moist and warm, and should be left in place until it has rooted (which usually takes about 4-6 weeks). Once the branch has rooted, it can then be cut from the parent plant and transplanted.
Spider mite, Whitefly, Thrips, Scale insects, Mealybug
Anthracnose, Root Rot, Powdery mildew, Avocado sunblotch viroid