Chrysanthemum Chrysanthemum 'Constable'
Chrysanthemum 'Constable', commonly known as the mum, is a flowering perennial plant that is well-loved for its ornamental appeal. The plant produces a lush, dense foliage that serves as a backdrop for its bloom show. The leaves are usually a deep green, with a somewhat glossy surface and serrated edges, adding a rich texture to the plant's overall appearance. The showstoppers of the Chrysanthemum 'Constable' are its flowers, which boast vibrant colors that can range from bright yellows, rich pinks, to deep purples, or even multicolored patterns. These flowers are composed of many individual petals that radiate outward from the center in an orderly fashion, creating a pompom-like effect that is classic to mums. Each flower head is typically composed of a tight cluster of these petal-heavy blooms, making it an exceedingly attractive feature of the plant. As mums, these plants tend to bloom in the later part of the growing season, giving gardeners and flower enthusiasts a colorful display in a time when many other plants have finished their flowering cycle. Their bloom period is quite long-lasting, which makes them a popular choice for extended color in gardens, container plantings, and as cut flowers for indoor arrangements. Chrysanthemum 'Constable' tends to give its best performance when situated in a place with ample sunlight, although they can tolerate a bit of shade too. The plant can be quite resilient and is known for its adaptability to various soil types, provided the soil is well-draining. Because of its attractive and robust nature, the Chrysanthemum 'Constable' is a favorite for fall displays and is commonly used to bring a pop of color to the autumn landscape.
About this plant
Garden Mum, Florist's Chrysanthemum, Hardy Chrysanthemum, Mum
Dendranthema 'Constable', Chrysanthemum morifolium 'Constable'
The most common name for Chrysanthemum 'Constable' is simply Chrysanthemum. Chrysanthemums are not highly toxic to humans, but they can cause dermatitis or skin irritation in some individuals when touched. If ingested, they may cause mild gastrointestinal upset, including symptoms like nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal pain. It is advisable to avoid eating any part of the plant due to its potential irritant properties.
Chrysanthemums are known to be toxic to pets, specifically cats and dogs. The toxicity arises from compounds called pyrethrins and other related chemicals present in the plant, which can cause symptoms such as drooling, vomiting, diarrhea, incoordination, and dermatitis. In severe cases, ingestion can lead to more serious symptoms like tremors, seizures, and neurological changes. It is important to prevent pets from ingesting any part of the plant and to seek veterinary care if they do.
Color of leaves
1-3 feet (0.3-0.9 meters)
1-3 feet (0.3-0.9 meters)
- General Benefits
- Ornamental value: Chrysanthemum 'Constable', commonly known as mums, is widely appreciated for its colorful and vibrant blooms, which can enhance the aesthetic of any garden or space.
- Extended blooming season: Mums typically have a long flowering period that extends into the fall, providing color when many other plants have finished blooming.
- Diversity in form and size: They come in various forms, from small button-sized blooms to large, decorative flowers, which makes them suitable for a range of garden designs and purposes.
- Attracts pollinators: Mums can attract butterflies and other beneficial pollinators, aiding in the pollination of other plants and contributing to the health of the local ecosystem.
- Ease of care: They are known for being low maintenance, requiring minimal care other than regular watering and occasional fertilizing.
- Drought tolerance: Once established, mums can withstand periods of low water, making them suitable for xeriscaping or areas with water restrictions.
- Versatility: Mums are versatile and can be grown in containers, borders, or as mass plantings, offering flexibility in gardening and landscape design.
- Cultural significance: Mums have been celebrated in festivals and are recognized as a symbol of autumn in many cultures, adding cultural value to their presence in the garden.
- Medical Properties
This plant is not used for medical purposes.
- Air-purifying Qualities
This plant is not specifically known for air purifying qualities.
- Other Uses
- Artistic inspiration: This variety of Chrysanthemum can serve as a muse for artists and photographers, due to its vibrant colors and intricate petal formations.
- Natural dye: The petals can be used to create a natural dye for fabrics, offering hues that range from soft yellows to deep oranges.
- Craft projects: Dried Chrysanthemum flowers can be used in scrapbooking, card making, or to create floral arrangements and wreaths.
- Companion planting: Gardeners may use Chrysanthemum 'Constable' as companion plants to deter pests from vegetables and other flowers due to their natural insect-repellent properties.
- Insect-repelling sachets: Dry the flowers and place them in sachets to naturally repel moths and other insects from closets and drawers.
- Floral waters: Petals can be steeped in water to create floral-scented waters for use in home fragrances or as a refreshing face mist.
- Culinary decoration: While not a common practice, the petals of Chrysanthemum 'Constable' can be used as a decorative, non-toxic garnish for culinary dishes.
- Fragrance development: The scent of the Chrysanthemum can be used as a note in perfumery, capturing the essence of autumn within a fragrance.
- Candle making: Incorporate dried Chrysanthemum petals into candle wax for added visual appeal and a subtle fragrance when the candle burns.
- Bookmarks: Pressed Chrysanthemum flowers can be used to create unique and natural bookmarks for book enthusiasts.
- Feng Shui
The Chrysanthemum is used in Feng Shui practice to promote happiness and well-being. It is often placed in the living room to bring joy and a sense of balance to the space.
- Zodiac Sign Compitability
The Chrysanthemum is not used in astrology practice.
- Plant Symbolism
- Longevity: Chrysanthemums are often associated with long life and enduring happiness, as they are known to bloom for extended periods.
- Loyalty: The robust nature of the chrysanthemum, which can withstand cooler temperatures, is seen as a symbol of fidelity and devotion.
- Happiness: In some cultures, chrysanthemums are given as gifts to convey well-wishes and to encourage cheerfulness.
- Rebirth: As a flower that blooms in the fall, the chrysanthemum can signify the idea of rebirth and the cycle of life.
- Death and Mourning: In some European countries, such as France and Poland, chrysanthemums are symbolic of death and are often used during funerary rites.
Mums, including the Chrysanthemum 'Constable,' need regular watering to maintain evenly moist soil. Provide them with about 1 inch of water weekly, which is roughly equivalent to about 0.623 gallons per square yard. During hot or dry weather, watering may need to increase to twice a week; however, it's important to avoid waterlogging, as mums dislike sitting in soggy soil. A good method is to water early in the morning directly at the base of the plant to allow the foliage time to dry during the day, reducing the risk of fungal diseases.
Mums thrive in full sunlight, needing a minimum of six hours of direct sunlight each day. Place your Chrysanthemum 'Constable' in a spot where it will receive ample light, without being shaded by larger plants or structures. If possible, choose a location that gets the morning light, as this will help dry the dew from the foliage, which helps prevent disease.
Mums prefer a moderate temperature range, making the Chrysanthemum 'Constable' ideal for growing in areas with temperatures between 60°F and 75°F. They can survive minimum temperatures down to 32°F, but frost can be damaging, so it is best to protect them when cold weather is anticipated. The maximum temperature for mums to remain vigorous is around 90°F. Consistently maintaining this ideal temperature range will promote healthy, vibrant blooms.
Chrysanthemum 'Constable' requires pruning to encourage bushier growth and more abundant blooms. Pinch back the growing tips when the plant is about 6 inches tall, leaving at least 2 to 3 leaves on the stem. Repeat the process every few weeks until midsummer, at which point pruning should stop to allow flower buds to form. Pruning in late summer or early fall can result in fewer or no flowers, as mums need time to develop buds for their autumn display.
The best soil mix for Mums should be well-draining with a high organic content; a mix of peat, perlite, and compost is ideal. Maintain soil pH between 6.0 and 7.0 for optimal growth.
Mums should typically be repotted every one to two years to refresh the soil and accommodate root growth.
- Humidity & Misting
Mums prefer moderate humidity levels, ideally between 40-60% for healthy growth.
- Suitable locations
Place Mums in a bright spot, away from direct sun; water well.
Plant Mums in well-draining soil; full sun to partial shade.
- Life cycle
The life cycle of the Chrysanthemum 'Constable', commonly known as the Hardy Garden Mum, begins with seed germination, which occurs under warm temperatures and moist conditions. Following germination, seedlings emerge and grow into vegetative plants, which develop a robust root system and foliage through photosynthesis. As the plant matures, it undergoes a vegetative growth phase where it becomes bushier and prepares for blooming. With proper light and temperature conditions, the plant enters the flowering stage, producing vibrant flowers that are often used for decorative purposes. After flowering, the chrysanthemum sets seeds if pollination occurs, which can be dispersed to give rise to new plants. Finally, the plant enters a period of dormancy during colder months, particularly if grown in regions with harsh winters, only to return to active growth in the following spring.
The most popular method of propagation for Chrysanthemum 'Constable', commonly known as the mum, is through stem cuttings. This is usually done in spring when the plant is beginning active growth. Growers select a healthy, non-flowering shoot and cut a piece about 4-6 inches (10-15 centimeters) long just below a leaf node. The lower leaves are removed, and the cutting is dipped in rooting hormone to encourage root development. This treated cutting is then planted in a moist, well-draining potting mix, ensuring at least one set of leaves is above the surface. The pot is kept in a warm place with indirect light until roots have developed, which typically occurs within a few weeks. After the roots are established, the new chrysanthemum plant can be transplanted into the garden or a desired container for continued growth.