Chrysanthemum Chrysanthemum 'Pennine Polo' (29d)

☠ Toxic to humans
🐾 Toxic to pets
🌸 Blooming
🍪 Not edible
‍🌱 Hard-care
chrysanthemum 'Pennine Polo'


Chrysanthemum 'Pennine Polo' is recognized for its distinctive blooms which have a rich, velvety texture. The petals are a vibrant shade of bronze, often with deeper hues or burnished tones that catch the eye in autumn displays. Each flower is composed of numerous long, slender ray florets that radiate from the center, curling slightly at the tips, giving a sense of fullness and dimension. The flowers cluster at the top of sturdy stems, creating an attractive dome-like shape. The foliage of 'Pennine Polo' is a fresh, bright green, and the leaves are deeply lobed with serrated edges, forming a lush backdrop that sets off the brilliance of the flowers. This variety is celebrated for its robust nature and the long-lasting quality of its blooms, making it a favorite for cut-flower arrangements and garden beds where a splash of warm color is desired.

Plant Info
Common Problems

About this plant

  • memoNames

    • Synonyms

      Hardy Chrysanthemum, Mum, Hardy Mum, Garden Mum, Florist's Chrysanthemum.

    • Common names

      Dendranthema 'Pennine Polo', Chrysanthemum 'Pennine Polo'

  • skullToxicity

    • To humans

      Chrysanthemums, commonly known as mums, can be mildly toxic if ingested by humans. Although it is generally not considered highly toxic, ingestion can sometimes cause irritation in the mouth and throat, gastrointestinal discomfort, diarrhea, and vomiting. Contact with the skin may also cause dermatitis in some individuals. It is advisable to avoid ingesting any part of the plant, and handle it with care if you have sensitive skin.

    • To pets

      Chrysanthemums (mums) are toxic to pets, including cats and dogs. If ingested, they can cause symptoms such as vomiting, diarrhea, hypersalivation, incoordination, and dermatitis. In some cases, ingestion can lead to more severe symptoms like depression, and signs related to the nervous system. It is recommended to keep pets away from this plant to prevent accidental ingestion and potential poisoning.

  • infoCharacteristics

    • Life cycle


    • Foliage type


    • Color of leaves


    • Flower color


    • Height

      1-2 feet (30-60 cm)

    • Spread

      1-2 feet (30-60 cm)

    • Plant type


    • Hardiness zones


    • Native area



  • money-bagGeneral Benefits

    • Aesthetic Appeal: Chrysanthemums add vibrant color to gardens and landscapes, with 'Pennine Polo' offering stunning white flowers that can brighten up any outdoor space.
    • Seasonal Interest: Blooming in late summer to fall, they provide interest and color when many other plants have finished flowering, extending the garden's display season.
    • Attracts Pollinators: They attract bees, butterflies, and other beneficial pollinators to the garden, supporting local ecosystems.
    • Easy to Grow: Chrysanthemums are generally easy to care for, adapting to a wide range of soil types and requiring minimal maintenance.
    • Versatility: Suitable for borders, containers, and as cut flowers, 'Pennine Polo' can be used in various horticultural contexts.
    • Drought Tolerance: Once established, many chrysanthemum varieties are drought-tolerant, making them suitable for water-conserving landscapes.
    • Cold Hardy: They can withstand cooler temperatures and are suitable for cultivation in many temperate regions.

  • medicalMedical Properties

    This plant is not used for medical purposes.

  • windAir-purifying Qualities

    This plant is not specifically known for air purifying qualities.

  • leavesOther Uses

    • Photography Prop: The Chrysanthemum 'Pennine Polo' can be used as a striking subject or backdrop for photographers looking to add a touch of nature’s elegance to their pictures.
    • Craft Projects: Its dried flowers can be incorporated into homemade paper, candles, or potpourri, offering a unique texture and color to arts and crafts.
    • Fabric Dye: The petals of the Chrysanthemum 'Pennine Polo' can be used to create a natural dye for fabrics, yielding hues of yellow or green depending on the mordant used.
    • Bookmarks: Pressed flowers of the Chrysanthemum 'Pennine Polo' can be laminated to make delicate, floral bookmarks.
    • Floral Art: These flowers can be arranged in artistic patterns on canvases and preserved with a clear medium to create beautiful floral art displays.
    • Culinary Garnish: Petals of Chrysanthemum 'Pennine Polo', after ensuring they are free from pesticides, can be used to add a flourish to gourmet dishes.
    • Cultural Festivals: In certain cultures, these flowers may be used decoratively during festivals or significant holidays to symbolize joy and longevity.
    • Teaching Tool: The Chrysanthemum 'Pennine Polo' can be used in botany classes to teach students about plant structure, growth, and taxonomy.
    • Edible Landscaping: These plants can be used in edible landscaping, provided they are free from pesticides and grown in safe, non-contaminated soils.
    • Companion Planting: Some gardeners believe that Chrysanthemums can be beneficial companions in the garden, possibly deterring certain pests with their natural properties.

Interesting Facts

  • bedFeng Shui

    Chrysanthemums are used in Feng Shui to attract positive energy and bring about a sense of well-being. They are often placed in living areas to promote happiness and a peaceful atmosphere. Because they represent longevity and joy, they can also be placed in areas of the home related to health, like the east sector, to enhance the chi related to well-being.

  • aquariusZodiac Sign Compitability

    The chrysanthemum is not used in astrology practice.

  • spiralPlant Symbolism

    • Longevity and Immortality: Chrysanthemums are often associated with long life and perpetual youth. Their robust nature and ability to bloom into the fall or even winter signify endurance and the ability to withstand the challenges of time.
    • Rejuvenation and Recovery: In some cultures, the chrysanthemum is a symbol of rejuvenation, relating to its ability to bloom late in the year when most other flowers have faded. It represents the idea of bouncing back and overcoming obstacles.
    • Nobility and Honor: In Japan, the chrysanthemum is a noble flower, often associated with the emperor and the imperial family. It signifies prestige and is a symbol of the throne.
    • Death and Mourning: In some European countries, chrysanthemums are associated with death and are often used in funeral floral arrangements or placed on graves. This symbolism is not universal, however, as this connotation is specific to certain cultures.
    • Love and Friendship: Depending on the color, chrysanthemums can also symbolize love and deep passion. Red chrysanthemums, in particular, are a symbol of love, whereas white chrysanthemums can symbolize loyal love and truth.
    • Cheerfulness and Optimism: The chrysanthemum is often seen as a happy flower, representing cheerfulness and positivity. Their bright and varied colors can symbolize joy and optimism in different situations.

Every 1-2 weeks
2500 - 10000 Lux
Every 1-2 years
Spring-Early Summer
As needed
  • water dropWater

    Mums, including the Chrysanthemum 'Pennine Polo', prefer evenly moist soil, so they should be watered regularly. During active growth and blooming, which typically peaks in the fall, they will need more water. A general rule is to provide about 1 gallon of water per square yard per week, but this can vary depending on the environment; hot, dry weather will demand more frequent watering. Always check the soil before watering—if the top inch is dry, it's time to water. It's best to water early in the morning at the base of the plant to avoid wetting the foliage, which can lead to fungal diseases.

  • sunLight

    Mums thrive in full sunlight, so the Chrysanthemum 'Pennine Polo' should be placed in a spot where it receives at least 6 hours of direct sunlight daily. Avoiding overly shady areas will promote vigorous growth and a profusion of blooms. The ideal location for your mums would be in an area where they can enjoy uninterrupted morning light and some protection from the intense afternoon sun if you live in a particularly hot climate.

  • thermometerTemperature

    Mums are relatively temperature tolerant, but the Chrysanthemum 'Pennine Polo' performs best when daytime temperatures are between 60 and 75 degrees Fahrenheit. They can tolerate nighttime temperatures down to 32 degrees Fahrenheit, but frost can damage the flowers. They should be protected from extreme heat as well; prolonged temperatures above 90 degrees Fahrenheit can be detrimental to their blooming and overall health.

  • scissorsPruning

    Pruning mums, including Chrysanthemum 'Pennine Polo', encourages bushier growth and prevents legginess. Pinch back the tips of the stems regularly until midsummer to promote branching, which will result in more blooms come fall. After blooming, prune the plants back to around 6-8 inches to prepare them for winter. The best time for the main pruning is late fall or early spring before the new growth starts.

  • broomCleaning

    As needed

  • bambooSoil

    Mums thrive in well-draining, fertile soil with a pH between 6.0 and 7.0. A mix of equal parts garden soil, peat moss, and perlite or sand ensures good drainage and aeration. Adding compost or well-rotted manure provides nutrients for optimal growth.

  • plantRepotting

    Chrysanthemums should be repotted annually to replenish the soil and accommodate root growth. Repotting is best done in the late winter or early spring before new growth starts.

  • water dropsHumidity & Misting

    Mums prefer moderate humidity levels, around 40-60%. They can tolerate some variation but avoid placing them in overly dry or excessively humid environments.

  • pinSuitable locations

    • Indoor

      Place in bright indirect light, away from drafts.

    • Outdoor

      Plant in full to partial sun, shelter from strong winds.

    • Hardiness zone

      5-9 USDA

  • circleLife cycle

    The Chrysanthemum 'Pennine Polo', commonly known as the Hardy Garden Mum, starts its life as a seed that germinates in spring, the radical being the first part to emerge from the seed to start the life cycle. After germination, the seedling develops into a vegetative state where it begins to grow leaves and stems, thriving in well-drained soil with ample sunlight. The plant enters a vegetative growth phase, where it focuses on producing a robust root system and lush foliage throughout the late spring and summer. As the days shorten in late summer to early fall, the Hardy Garden Mum transitions to the flowering stage, producing vibrant blossoms that are highly valued for their ornamental appeal. After blooming, the plant sets seeds, if the flowers have been pollinated, which can be dispersed to produce new plants. Following seed set or if the conditions become unfavorable, the above-ground parts of the Chrysanthemum 'Pennine Polo' die back, but the plant can survive winter in many climates using its perennial root system to regrow when conditions improve in the following spring.

  • sproutPropogation

    • Propogation time

      Spring-Early Summer

    • The Chrysanthemum 'Pennine Polo', commonly known as the Hardy Chrysanthemum or Mum, is often propagated through division, which is the most popular method. This process is ideally performed in the spring once the risk of frost has passed. To propagate by division, gardeners should dig up an established clump of chrysanthemums and gently separate the plant into smaller sections, ensuring that each new section has a portion of the root system attached. These divisions should then be replanted at the same soil depth they were previously growing and spaced approximately 18 inches (45 centimeters) apart to allow for ample growing room. New divisions require regular watering to establish themselves, but once rooted, they will continue to grow and can be expected to bloom in the same year.