Kumquat Citrus japonica (F)

👤 Non-toxic to humans
🐾 Non-toxic to pets
🌸 Blooming
🍪 Edible
‍🌱 Hard-care


C. japonica is a large spiny evergreen shrub with glossy lance-shaped leaves and axillary clusters of fragrant white flowers 1.2cm across in spring and summer, followed by globose orange fruits 3-4cm across

Plant Info
Common Problems

About this plant

  • memoNames

    • Family


    • Synonyms

      Kumquat, Japanese Kumquat, Nagami Kumquat, Marumi Kumquat, Morgani Kumquat.

    • Common names

      Fortunella japonica (Thunb.) Swingle, Citrus margarita Lour., Atalantia polyandra (Roxb.) Corrêa, Citrus madurensis Lour., Citrus kinokuni Hort. ex Tanaka, Aegle sepiaria DC., Citrus microcarpa Bunge.

  • infoCharacteristics

    • Life cycle


    • Foliage type


    • Color of leaves


    • Flower color


    • Height

      6-25 feet (1.8-7.6 meters)

    • Spread

      6-15 feet (1.8-4.6 meters)

    • Plant type


    • Hardiness zones


    • Native area



  • money-bagGeneral Benefits

    • Aesthetic Appeal: Citrus japonica, commonly known as Kumquat, is an ornamental plant with glossy green leaves and vibrant orange fruit that can add beauty to gardens and landscapes.
    • Edible Fruit: Kumquats are edible, with a sweet rind and tart flesh, often eaten whole or used in marmalades, jellies, and desserts.
    • Culinary Uses: The fruit is used in various culinary applications, including flavoring for beverages, garnishes, and as a unique ingredient in recipes.
    • Fragrance: The plant produces fragrant white flowers that can add a pleasant aroma to the surrounding environment.
    • Compact Size: Kumquats are relatively small trees, making them suitable for container planting and ideal for small gardens or urban spaces.
    • Pollinator Attraction: The flowers attract bees and other pollinators, which can benefit the pollination of other plants in the garden.

  • medicalMedical Properties

    • Antioxidant activity: Citrus japonica contains various antioxidants which can help in protecting the body against oxidative stress.
    • Anti-inflammatory properties: The fruit may have anti-inflammatory potential, contributing to reducing inflammation in the body.
    • Antimicrobial effects: Some studies suggest that extracts from Citrus japonica have antimicrobial properties, useful in fighting certain bacterial infections.
    • Anticancer potential: Components found within the plant might possess anticancer properties, though this is based on preliminary research.
    • Anti-allergic action: The plant has been associated with the suppression of allergic reactions.
    • Gastroprotective effects: There have been indications of its use in protecting the gastrointestinal tract.
    • Neuroprotective properties: The fruit may offer some protective benefits to the nervous system.

  • windAir-purifying Qualities

    This plant is not specifically known for air purifying qualities.

  • leavesOther Uses

    • Citrus japonica (commonly known as Kumquat) can be used in perfumery, where the essential oils extracted from the fruit peels or leaves offers a fresh, citrus scent.
    • In floral arrangements, kumquats, with their bright orange fruit and glossy green leaves, are often used for a pop of color and natural elegance.
    • The fruit's essential oils are sometimes used in cleaning products for their ability to impart a pleasant fragrance and to help cut through grease.
    • As a natural dye, the skins of the kumquat can be boiled to produce a yellow/orange tint for fabrics or art projects.
    • During traditional Chinese New Year celebrations, kumquats are used as decorations to symbolize good luck and prosperity.
    • In the culinary domain beyond eating, kumquat rinds are candied to create sweet decorations for desserts or as an accompaniment to cheeses.
    • Kumquat seeds, being rich in pectin, can be used as a natural thickener in jams and jellies.
    • In landscaping, kumquat trees provide year-round visual interest with their glossy foliage, fragrant flowers, and colorful fruits.
    • The wood of the kumquat tree is occasionally utilized in woodworking projects for creating small objects, owing to its hardness and fine grain.
    • Kumquat fruit can be fermented and used as a base for innovative craft spirits or unique flavoring agents in a variety of alcoholic beverages.

Interesting Facts

  • bedFeng Shui

    The plant Kumquat is not used in Feng Shui practice.

  • aquariusZodiac Sign Compitability

    The plant Kumquat is not used in astrology practice.

  • spiralPlant Symbolism

    • Prosperity: The fruit of the Citrus japonica, commonly known as kumquat, is often associated with wealth and prosperity because of its golden color, which resembles coins.
    • Good Luck: Presenting kumquats during festivities such as Lunar New Year is believed to bring good fortune and luck to the recipients.
    • Longevity: The kumquat tree's durability and the longevity of its fruit-bearing characteristics symbolize the wish for a long and healthy life.
    • Wealth: Because kumquats are often given in abundance during celebrations, they are also symbolic of ample wealth and resources.
    • Friendship: The exchange of kumquats is also seen as a means of solidifying bonds and expressing friendly intentions.

Every 1-2 weeks
2500 - 10000 Lux
Every 2-3 years
Spring-Early Summer
As needed
  • water dropWater

    The common name for Citrus japonica is Kumquat. It should be watered regularly, ensuring the soil remains moist but not waterlogged. A kumquat tree typically requires watering once a week, but you may need to water more frequently during the warmer months or if the plant is in a pot. Generally speaking, during each watering session, aim to use about 2 to 4 gallons of water, depending on the size and age of the tree. Do not let the soil dry out completely between waterings, but be cautious to avoid overwatering which can lead to root rot.

  • sunLight

    Kumquats thrive best in full sun exposure. They should be placed in a spot where they can receive at least 6 to 8 hours of direct sunlight daily. An ideal location is a south-facing window or a sunny spot in the garden that is protected from strong winds. While they can tolerate some light shade, too little sun can reduce fruit production and overall health.

  • thermometerTemperature

    The ideal temperature range for a Kumquat is between 50 and 85 degrees Fahrenheit. These trees can withstand brief periods of cold down to about 20 degrees Fahrenheit, but temperatures below this can cause damage or kill the plant. To thrive, maintain a consistent temperature above freezing and avoid exposing your kumquat to sudden temperature fluctuations.

  • scissorsPruning

    Kumquats should be pruned to maintain shape, remove dead or diseased wood, and encourage better airflow within the canopy. The best time for pruning is after the tree has finished fruiting, typically in late winter or early spring. Prune sparingly, as excessive pruning can reduce fruit production. Typically, pruning once a year is sufficient to keep your kumquat tree healthy and productive.

  • broomCleaning

    As needed

  • bambooSoil

    Kumquats prefer a well-draining soil mix with a slightly acidic to neutral pH of 6.0 to 7.5. An ideal mix might consist of two parts peat moss or coco coir, one part perlite or vermiculite, and one part compost to provide nutrients.

  • plantRepotting

    Kumquats should be repotted every two to three years or when the roots have outgrown the pot. Choose a container just a few inches larger in diameter than the previous one.

  • water dropsHumidity & Misting

    Kumquats thrive in moderate to high humidity levels, ideally between 40% to 60%. They can tolerate lower humidity but prefer these moister conditions.

  • pinSuitable locations

    • Indoor

      Place kumquats in bright, indirect light and away from drafts.

    • Outdoor

      Plant kumquats in full sun to partial shade and shelter from cold winds.

    • Hardiness zone

      8-11 USDA

  • circleLife cycle

    The kumquat (Citrus japonica (F)) begins its life cycle as a seed, often germinating in warm soil conditions after a period of stratification. Upon sprouting, the seedling grows into a young plant with a focus on developing a strong root system and foliage. As it matures into a juvenile tree, the plant experiences vegetative growth, forming a branching structure and glossy, dark green leaves. Once it reaches maturity, which can take several years, the kumquat begins its reproductive phase, flowering with small, fragrant, white blossoms that attract pollinators. Following successful pollination, the flowers develop into small, edible, orange fruit, which carry the seeds for the next generation. The kumquat tree can continue to flower and fruit for many years, often living several decades, while undergoing cycles of growth, dormancy, and harvest annually.

  • sproutPropogation

    • Propogation time

      Spring-Early Summer

    • The most popular method of propagation for Citrus japonica, commonly known as kumquat, is through grafting. This technique is favored as it maintains the true characteristics of the parent plant and leads to earlier fruit production compared to plants grown from seed. Grafting is usually performed in late winter or early spring when the plant is beginning to grow. It involves taking a small branch or bud from a desired kumquat tree and joining it to the rootstock of another citrus plant. The graft site is then wrapped and sealed to protect against disease and moisture loss until the graft has fully taken, a process that can take a few weeks to several months depending on environmental conditions.